Anne Vainikka

Visiting Scholar


MA Linguistics, University of Washington (Seattle) 1984
PhD Linguistics, University of Massachusetts (Amherst) 1989

Selected Publications (by topic)


A.Vainikka and P.Brattico (to appear). The Finnish Accusative: Long Distance Case Assignment by Agreement.

Vainikka (2011) Genitive case in Finnish reconsidered. Biolinguistica Fennica Working Papers 2:1-32.

Vainikka, A. (2003), Postverbal Case Realization in Finnish. In D.Nelson & S.Manninen (eds.) Generative Approaches to Finnic and Saami Linguistics. CLSI Publications, Stanford (pp.235-266)

Vainikka, A. (1993), Three structural cases in Finnish, in A. Holmberg & U. Nikanne (eds.)Case and other Topics in Finnish Syntax, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Holland (pp.129-159)


Vainikka, A. (2012) The possessive suffix in Finnish. Presentation at the Workshop on Finnish Syntax, University of Helsinki, March 9th, 2012.

S. Huhmarniemi and A. Vainikka (2010) Multiple WH-questions and reflexive binding in Finnish. Presentation at the 11th International Congress of Finno-Ugric Studies, Hungary.

Vainikka, A. and Y. Levy (1999), Empty Subjects in Hebrew and Finnish, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 17:613-671.

Vainikka, A. (1989), Deriving Syntactic Representations in Finnish, University of Massachusetts Ph.D. dissertation. Distributed by GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.(available from UMI, Ann Arbor, MI, order no.DA9011811)

Vainikka, A. (1987), Why can ‘or’ mean ‘and’ or ‘or’? University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers (UMOP) 12 (Issues in Semantics), GLSA, Amherst (pp.148-186)


Vainikka, A. & M.Young-Scholten (to appear) The Universal Bare VP.

Legendre, G., P. Hagstrom, A. Vainikka & M. Todorova (2002), Partial Constraint Ordering in Child French, Language Acquisition 10(3):189-227.

Adone, D. & A. Vainikka (1999) Long Distance WH-Movement in Child Mauritian Creole,in M.deGraff (ed.) Creolization, Language Change and Language Acquisition, MIT Press, Cambridge (pp.75-94)

Varlokosta, S., A. Vainikka & B. Rohrbacher (1998), Functional projections, markedness,and “root infinitives” in early child Greek, in The Linguistic Review 15:187-207.

Vainikka, A. & T. Roeper (1995), Abstract operators in early acquisition, The LinguisticReview 12:275-310.

Clahsen, H., S. Eisenbeiss & A. Vainikka (1994), The seeds of structure—a structuralanalysis of the acquisition of case, in B. Schwartz & T. Hoekstra (eds.) LanguageAcquisition Studies in Generative Grammar, John Benjamins, Amsterdam (pp.85-118)

Vainikka, A. (1993/4), Case in the development of English syntax, Language Acquisition3:257-325.


Kahoul, W., A. Vainikka & M. Young-Scholten (to appear) The Mystery of Missing Inflections.

A.Vainikka & M.Young-Scholten (in print) Stagelike Development and Organic Grammar, in J.Herschensohn & M.Young-Scholten (eds.) Cambridge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ch.27.

Vainikka, A. & M.Young-Scholten (2011) The Acquisition of German: Introducing Organic Grammar. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Vainikka, A. & M. Young-Scholten (2006) The roots of syntax and how they grow: Organic Grammar, the Basic Variety and Processability Theory. In S.Unsworth, T.Parodi, A.Sorace & M.Young-Scholten (eds.) Paths of Development in L1 and L2 Acquisition,John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia. Pp. 77-106.

Vainikka, A. & M.Young-Scholten (1998), Morphosyntactic Triggers in Adult SLA, in M.-L. Beck (ed.) Morphology and its Interfaces in Second Language Knowledge, John Benjamins, Amsterdam. (pp.89-113)

Vainikka, A. & M.Young-Scholten (1996), Partial Transfer, Not Partial Access, Behavioraland Brain Sciences 19:744-745.

Vainikka, A. & M. Young-Scholten (1996), The early stages in adult L2 syntax: additionalevidence from Romance speakers, Second Language Research 12(2):140-176.

Vainikka, A. & M. Young-Scholten (1994), Direct Access to X'-Theory--Evidence fromTurkish and Korean adults learning German, in B.Schwartz & T.Hoekstra (eds)Language Acquisition Studies in Generative Grammar, John Benjamins, Amsterdam.(pp.265-316)


Vainikka, A. (2011) Review of The Genesis of Complexity by Talmy Givon (2009). Studies in Second Language Acquisition 32(4):.642-3.

Mobaraki, M., A. Vainikka & M. Young-Scholten (2008) The status of subjects in early child L2 English. In: B. Haznedar & E. Gavruseva (eds.) Current Trends in Child Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Pp. 209-236.

Vainikka, A. & M. Young-Scholten (2003), Review of Roger Hawkins (2001): Second Language Syntax: A Generative Introduction. Lingua 113:93-102.