The papers in this special issue of Language and Cognitive Processing on the neural bases of language production illustrate two general approaches in current cognitive neuroscience. One approach focuses on investigating cognitive issues, making use of the logic of associations/dissociations or the logic of neural markers as key investigative tools. The other approach has as its primary goal identifying the cognitive and computational functions performed by specific brain areas and understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The research described in the papers of this special issue applies these approaches to the study of fundamental questions concerning sign language, multilingualism, speech motor control and the interaction between speech production, and comprehension. We discuss how, in doing so, this research sheds light on the cognitive and brain mechanisms of language production.